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Afghanistan

General Information Data
Capital Kabul
Official languages Pashto, Daro
Major languages Balochi, uzbek, Turkmen, Pashayi
Population 34,656,032
Density 49.88/km2
Gender ratio 1.03 male(s)/female
Currency Afghani
Time zone UTC+4:30
Drives on the right
Calling code +93



General overview
This country has been under the domination of Arabs, Persians and Mongols in the early days.

In 1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani united the tribes of Pashtuns and created the empire of Durrani, which is the beginning of modern Afghanistan.
By the end of the nineteenth century, Afghanistan was under the influence of England. On August 19, 1919, the country regained its independence.

In 1979, a Soviet invasion took place which destroyed democracy and introduced communism but Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan 10 years later. In 1996, the Taliban invaded Afghanistan and a civil war started, involving US and UN interventions. In 2001, a new constitution was adopted. In 2004, Hamid Karzai became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan.

The Afghan Constitution adopted in 2004 presupposes the existence of three-folded division of powers: legislative, executive and judiciary. Legislative power is represented by the parliament called Loja Jirga. The executive power is exercised by the president elected by universal suffrage who is subject to the government and the central administration.
Afghanistan is an mountainous inland country with no access to the sea, located in central and south-west Asia. Over 4/5 of the area is covered by mountains.


Education system
Basic education
There are 2 education systems in Afghanistan. Religious education in mosques and state education in public schools. Primary school lasts from 7 to 13 years old. Students learn to write, read and count.

Middle education
The middle school lasts 3 years And there is a final exam to proceed with further studies.
Secondary education lasts 3 years and it has 2 variants. Students can continue to study in the academy and later go to university or learn subjects such as agriculture, commerce and art. Both path forsee final exams.

Higher education
In Afghanistan, higher education is very neglected, there are only two universities in Kabul.


Economy
Agriculture represents 24%, industry covers 21% and Services account for 55% of GDP.

Agricultural production is the backbone of Afghanistan’s economy.
The country is known for producing some of the finest pomegranates, grapes, apricots, melons, and several other fresh and dry fruits. It is also known as the world’s largest producer of opium.


Religion and Culture
Sunni islam is followed by 89% of the population, Imamiyyah represents 7%, while Isma account for 4%.

Afghanistan is mostly a tribal society with different regions of the country having its own subculture.
Afghans are regarded with fear and condescension, for their high consideration for personal honor, for their tribe loyalty and for their readiness to use the force to settle disputes.

As tribal warfare and internecine feuding has been one of their chief occupations since time immemorial, this individualistic trait has made it difficult for foreigners to conquer them. Most popular sports are: cricket, football, basketball, handball and boxing. Afghan cuisine is largely based on the nation’s main crops, such as wheat, maize, barley and rice.
Accompanying ingredients are native fruits and vegetables as well as dairy products such as milk, yogurt and whey. Kabuli Palaw is the national dish of Afghanistan


Sources
Central Intelligence Agency
IndexMundi
Commisceo Global
Wikipedia
World Bank
Classbase
Statista

Further References

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